Schizophrenia is generally described in terms of its symptoms.
These are usually divided into 3 categories.

Positive symptoms

Among these are delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking or speech.

Negative symptoms

Examples include social withdrawal, lack of interest or motivation, and flat affect (lack of facial expression, or monotone voice).

Cognitive symptoms

These include challenges with paying attention, processing information, and memory.

Because there is no cure for schizophrenia, the aim of treatment is to manage its symptoms.

Treatment of schizophrenia

Antipsychotic medicines were introduced in the 1950s. Since then, more treatments have become available. In the 1960s, new types of therapy began to be used, including counseling, behavioral therapy, and psychotherapy.

Antipsychotic medicines are available in different forms, including pills that you swallow or that dissolve under your tongue, an oral solution, injections, and a transdermal patch. Treatment continues to evolve as researchers look for new ways to help people living with schizophrenia.